Design and Manufacturing Directional Drilling

Project Overview

Many engineering applications, require the drilling a hole deep under the surface of the earth. Such applications include installation of utility lines, land surveying, oil and gas extraction, anchoring of foundations, etc. For these applications, drilling rigs are used. Typically, drilling rigs, are very big structures with many tools and equipment. The size, shape and complexity of rigs vary with the purpose and location of the rig. Medium to small sized rigs, are usually mobile and used in exploration for water or for testing materials. On the other hand, large sized drilling rigs can penetrate deep inside the earth with a depth of thousands of meters, therefore this type of rigs are fixed and mainly used for oil and gas extraction.
Rigs can be classified based on their power source, the pipe used, their height, the method of drilling and the inclination of their derrick. A common characteristic of most rigs is their inability to direct the axis of drilling. Such an ability is called directional drilling and can be categorized into four groups of drilling. 1) The first one is called oil field directional drilling. 2) The second is called utility directional drilling and is mainly horizontal or parallel to surface. 3) The forth is Surface in Seam (SIS). SIS is used to penetrate a wall of reservoir from a horizontal line.
The benefits of directional drilling are generally categorized in three groups. The first one is to increase the exploration parts inside the earth crust by going horizontal instead of vertical. The second reason is some of targeted areas are beneath a very hard to drill formation, therefore best answer is to drill horizontally to reach those areas. Lastly to connect reservoirs from different areas into one main hole, to simplifies the workload and more efficient way rather than building several drilling rigs.

There are many drilling techniques used in drilling sites such as Auger drilling and Hydraulic Rotary Drilling. HRD method is mainly used when there is no need to bring samples of formations to surface for testing.
Although there are many types and methods of drilling, however there are limitations on directional drillings. One of the limitations is the technique on how to build it and control the angle of inclination. As the drilling can reach huge depths, it’s hard to control it through cables and wires. One of the ways that is used nowadays is to use a tilted drill bid with fixed angle. But it takes time and efforts for changing the angle of drilling. Drilling companies are searching for ways to control angles of bid while drilling, but few of them worked or can’t be implemented on site locations.

Project Objectives

  1. Study the literature of drilling.
  2. Find Applications of directional drilling.
  3. Design one/two prototypes of directional drilling.
  4. Successful approach to gathering natural gas and oil.